Vitamins are needed in small doses because the body cannot produce them itself, and therefore it is necessary to take them from food. It participates in a number of metabolic reactions and also acts as protective factors against the negative effects of external factors on the organism.
Fat-soluble vitamins (ie A, D, E and K) and water-soluble vitamins (ie vitamins from group B, C) are known. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body in the liver, so at very high doses, there may be an excess of them in the body, which is not desirable. Therefore, people should not take large doses of supplements. Water-soluble vitamins have nowhere to be stored in the body, and therefore there is no risk of any negative effects, for example with higher fruit consumption. However, in both groups there is a risk of negative effects if insufficient intake of these vitamins.
Vitamin A is important for proper vision and immunity. Vitamin D helps build calcium into the bones and generally promotes growth (in children). Vitamin E is a great antioxidant and vitamin K improves blood clotting function. In general, these vitamins can be obtained from dairy products, liver, fish oil, vegetable oil, eggs, vegetables and fruits, but also from other foods in small amounts. Vitamin D can also be obtained by our body from sunlight, but in our climate zone the radiation is not enough to cover daily needs.
There are many vitamins from group B – B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 – folic acid and B12. If your body does not have enough vit. B2 and B6, you may experience cracked corners of the lips or other changes in the skin. Vit B9 alias folic acid is very important. It is important for the proper production of DNA, which is especially necessary during pregnancy so that the fetus can develop properly. Deficiency in general in humans can lead to anemia, as poor quality/ abnormal red blood cells form. In connection with the development of anemia, there is also a lack of vit. B12, which is responsible for well-functioning hematopoiesis. In addition, its deficiency can damage parts of the nervous system and depression or dementia can occur. Vitamin C is one of the most important antioxidants and immune boosters. Therefore, its increased intake in the winter months is widely recommended to protect the body from disease. In general, these vitamins are again found in both animal and plant products. Only vit. B12 in animal products, therefore vegans are especially endangered by its deficiency.
If you eat a variety, include meat, fish, dairy products, vegetable oils, cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits, then you are able to cover sufficient doses of vitamins for the body and there will be no deficiency. Dietary supplements are not needed in even healthy individuals.